Is Meth-Induced Psychosis Permanent?
Meth-induced psychosis is a serious and unfortunate result of continued methamphetamine abuse. In some instances, it can occur even in recreational meth users who are not addicted. Treatment for methamphetamine addiction and meth-induced psychosis can stop the progression of this condition. However, the chances of recovery are much better if treatment is provided in the early stages of the disorder. Without such intervention, permanent damage and recurring psychotic symptoms may be experienced.
Despite the obvious danger the drug presents, methamphetamine abuse still remains rampant. Tens of millions of people around the world are known to abuse this intoxicating chemical substance, including more than 1.5 million in the United States alone.
Over time, continued abuse of methamphetamine can cause a slew of mental and physical health problems. The drug can play havoc with normal brain functioning, causing severe cognitive issues that can make normal functioning difficult. One of the most disabling side effects of methamphetamine use is meth-induced psychosis, a debilitating mental health condition that can become chronic.
Research reveals that 40 percent of men and women who consume methamphetamine will experience at least some psychotic symptoms, with heavy users more likely to develop full-blown psychosis. Meth-induced psychosis can even become permanent, especially if left untreated.
What Is Meth-Induced Psychosis?
Meth-induced psychosis is a severe psychiatric disorder marked by persistent and powerful disruptions in thinking and perception. It manifests in the form of psychotic episodes that can last for a few hours, a few days, or an indefinite period.
The telltale symptoms of meth-induced psychosis include:
- Delusions. Meth-induced psychosis will produce irrational, bizarre, and evidence-free beliefs. These delusions will seem entirely real from the perspective of the person experiencing psychosis, even though they have no basis in reality.
- Hallucinations. Individuals experiencing meth-induced psychosis may experience powerful hallucinations, primarily visual or tactile. A common example of the latter is the perception that tiny insects are crawling around under the skin, which often leads to frantic and obsessive scratching that can cause bleeding and skin infections.
- Agitation. During an episode of meth-induced psychosis, it may be impossible for a person to relax or sit still. They may experience extreme, unrelenting anxiety that interferes with sleep and causes them to become moody and irritable.
- Paranoia. Meth-induced psychosis produces profound suspicion of other people, which in some cases can lead to hostile or violent behavior.
Meth-induced psychosis is usually preceded by a pre-psychotic stage, which is marked by strange speech, thoughts, and behaviors. Meth users and their loved ones may assume such symptoms are a side effect of meth intoxication, but they actually indicate that a psychotic break is near.
Psychotic episodes caused by meth abuse may occur while the drug is being used or during withdrawal periods. They may even recur after methamphetamine abuse has stopped, unpredictably, and seemingly at random.
Tragically, abstinence is not a guaranteed cure for meth-induced psychosis. Its symptoms may return again and again, despite the former addict’s embrace of a drug-free lifestyle. This can be a devastating result, but it is one that any heavy user of methamphetamine may ultimately face.
Meth Addiction and Its Impact on the Brain
Methamphetamine is a potent and highly addictive mind-altering drug. It is usually contaminated with toxic substances like battery acid, drain cleaner, or antifreeze, which are used to manufacture meth in unregulated home laboratories.
In the brain, methamphetamine acts like a poison. If use is prolonged or continuous, it can cause a cascade of troubling effects. Continued use of the drug can kill a significant number of brain cells, disrupt neuronal network functioning, and cause serious deterioration in cognitive abilities. Addiction to methamphetamine develops as the damage it causes in the brain escalates since the brain comes to depend on the drug’s capacity to stimulate the production of important neurochemicals it can no longer make on its own.
Long-term or heavy methamphetamine consumption is associated with memory loss, issues with concentration and focus, a lack of emotional control or impulse control, poor judgment, and confused thinking patterns. Psychosis is the most extreme symptom of methamphetamine addiction and a clear indication that the brain damage suffered has been significant.
Permanent meth-induced psychosis is a worst-case scenario. But it is a possibility if heavy meth abuse continues and detox and treatment are avoided for too long.
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Risk Factors for Meth-Induced Psychosis
Even light users of methamphetamine can experience meth-induced psychosis. But there are several risk factors that can increase its chances of developing. They include:
- Meth abuse. Those who become dependent on methamphetamine, or use it in large quantities, are far more likely to experience symptoms of psychosis than casual users or those who’ve never used the drug.
- Taking meth at a young age. Those who begin taking meth as teens are more likely to experience severe reactions, including meth-induced psychosis.
- Experiences with childhood trauma. Being a victim of abuse or neglect during childhood can cause a person to struggle with mental illness of all types later in life.
- Concurrent use of marijuana or alcohol. Using multiple intoxicating substances simultaneously can speed the onset of meth dependency and lead to more severe mental health symptoms.
- Sleep deprivation. Sleep disturbances are a common side effect of meth abuse, and they seem to have some relationship to the onset of psychotic symptoms.
- Having a family history of psychotic disorders. People who have a genetic predisposition to conditions like schizophrenia are at higher risk for psychotic episodes if they abuse methamphetamines.
Those who are especially vulnerable to meth-induced psychosis should consider seeking treatment if they show any signs of methamphetamine dependency. Failure to do so could dramatically increase their chances of experiencing severe psychotic symptoms, which could become a permanent and unwanted life companion.
What Can Be Done for Methamphetamine Addiction and Meth-Induced Psychosis
Meth-induced psychosis can be enduring. Psychotic episodes may be experienced long after meth use has stopped, and the risk is not insignificant.
According to various medical studies:
- Approximately 30 percent of methamphetamine users will experience psychotic symptoms up to six months after they stop using the drug.
- Between 10 and 28 percent of former meth users will experience psychotic symptoms beyond the first six months after getting clean and sober.
- At least five percent of abstinent former methamphetamine users will still experience psychotic symptoms three years after finishing treatment.
Unfortunately, the cognitive and neurological damage caused by methamphetamine abuse may not be completely reversible. This doesn’t always lead to persistent psychosis, but in some instances it can, especially if the drug was used recklessly and heavily for a significant amount of time.
Even brief bouts of methamphetamine addiction can lead to permanent deterioration of mental and physical health. Nevertheless, men and women who receive comprehensive treatment for substance use and co-occurring mental health issues may be able to regain a good portion of their lost functioning.
Residential treatment programs for meth-induced psychosis that offer individual, group, and family therapy sessions, antipsychotic medications, and complementary wellness treatments can make a profound difference in the lives of those who’ve struggled with methamphetamine dependency and meth-induced psychosis. This is true regardless of how long they abused meth before asking for help—although outcomes are obviously better if treatment is sought quickly after signs of meth addiction are initially detected.
Meth-induced psychosis is a tragic result of methamphetamine addiction, and for some, it will remain with them in some form for an indefinite period. The existence of such a severe and frightening condition should be enough to make meth users realize how dangerous this drug really is. The good news is that if they respond by seeking a diagnosis and residential treatment in the early stages of their addiction, this disturbing and life-altering development may be avoidable.